Internetworking Basics

  •     Syllabus

    The areas of networking this unit will cover are...


    1. Local and wide area networks and addressing schemes

    Networking: history, topologies, local, metropolitan, wide and storage networks (LAN, MAN, WAN, SAN), Virtual Private Networking (VPN), internet, intranet, extranet, bandwidth and throughput, limitations, measurement, data transfer calculations.

    Devices and connectivity: router, repeater, hub, bridge, switch, PC networking components eg. (Network Interface Card, modem, integrated services digital network (ISDN), asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) router), connecting to a network eg internet, protocol basics eg TCP/IP and PPP, browser plug-ins, basic troubleshooting eg (ping, ipconfig, winipcfg, traceroute), peer-to-peer, client-server, wireless (devices, topologies, communications, authentication, security)

    Data representation: binary, bits, bytes, base 10, base 2, conversions eg IP address in dotted decimal into binary and visa versa, hexadecimal conversions eg Media Access Controller (MAC) addresses, Boolean/binary logic, IP address and subnet mask calculations

    Network layers: OSI 7-layer model, TCP/IP four layer model, encapsulation, physical layer, media, devices, Ethernet, connectors, wireless, WAN (physical layer, serial connections, routers, ISDN basic rate interface (BRI), Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), cable), configuring devices with a console management connection


    2. Signals and media

    Science: electricity (atoms, electrons, conductors, insulators, voltage, resistance, impedance, current, circuits), electromagnetic spectrum (radio, microwave, infrared, visible, light rays (reflection, refraction, total internal reflection)), fibre optics, wireless LANs, waves and signals (sine, square, analogue, digital, exponents, logarithms, decibels, signal and noise eg viewed with an oscilloscope or spectrum analyser)

    Cable installation, testing and care: copper (coaxial cable, twisted pair), termination, multimode fibre, single-mode fibre, signals and noise, test parameters, time domain reflectometry, optical fibre testing, attenuation, insertion loss, noise sources, types of crosstalk, emerging standards


    3. Ethernet and switched networks

    Ethernet technologies: IEEE naming rules, frame (structure, fields), media access control, collision detection, back off, timing, error handling, types of collisions, FCS, autonegotiation, link establishment, full/half duplex, cable types (wiring, architecture), 100-Mbps through to 10-gigabit Ethernet architectures

    Ethernet Switching: layer 2 bridging, switching, latency, modes, collision-domains, broadcast-domains, segmentation, data flow


    4. Internet protocols and routing

    TCP/IP: background, OSI and TCP/IP layers (application, transport, internet, network access), URLs, IP addresses, address classes A to E, reserved, public, private, obtaining an address, subnetting, IPv4, IPv6, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse ARP (RARP), Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), address resolution.

    Routing and subnetting: routing and routed protocols, packet propagation and switching with a router, IP packet structure, routing (protocols, path determination, tables, algorithms, metrics, Interior and Enhanced Gateway Protocols, link state, distance vector), subnetting (reason for, mask address, AND rule, subnetting class A, B and C networks)

    Upper layers: transport (flow control, three-way handshake, windowing, acknowledgement, TCP, UDP, port numbers), session (establishment, maintenance, termination, OSI session layer), presentation (translate data formats, encryption, data compression), application (protocols and applications eg DNS, FTP, HTTP, SMTP, NNTP, SNMP, Telnet)


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